Edwin Vermulst

007 edwin.vermulst@vvgb-law.com
T: +32 2 542 07 80
D: +32 2 542 07 84
F: +32 2 534 58 88

Edwin Vermulst has practiced international trade and EU law and policy since 1985 and is a founding partner of the law firm. He has been involved in virtually all major EU trade defence cases since that time and is generally considered to be one of the world’s leading experts on anti-dumping, subsidies and safeguards.

Mr. Vermulst’s SJD thesis, completed in 1986 under supervision of Professor John H. Jackson, was a comparison between EU and American anti-dumping law and practice. Having initially worked in Washington and Brussels and thus able to compare the day-to-day operation of trade defence instruments in the leading jurisdictions at the time, he observed early on that the ideal system would need to combine best practices of both.

Mr. Vermulst’s trade practice focuses on the defence of multinationals, trade associations and governments in trade defence proceedings, during the investigatory phase and subsequently in court and WTO challenges to measures imposed. Because of the interplay between trade defence measures and key customs laws such as classification, valuation and rules of origin, his practice soon expanded to cover these areas as well.

Mr. Vermulst is one of the few European lawyers in private practice to have served as a WTO Panelist and has repeatedly acted as counsel to governments involved in WTO dispute settlement proceedings, whether as complainants or respondents, before the Panel and the Appellate Body.

His regulatory experience includes EU environmental issues, including cap and trade, export controls, state aid, notably under the transitional regime for accession countries, and merger filings.

  • Founding partner Vermulst Verhaeghe Graafsma & Bronckers Advocaten in 1995

  • Editor-in-Chief Journal of World Trade

  • Editorial board Global Trade and Customs Journal and Legal Issues of Economic Integration

  • Faculty Member World Trade Institute Bern and IELPO Barcelona

  • WTO Panelist Mexico-HFCS

  • Board member European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE), Belgium

Invariably selected as top trade practitioner by publications such as Chambers Global 2013 (star individual; “one of the very top experts on trade matters”; “could well be the best trade lawyer in the world”), Euromoney (“most highly nominated trade lawyer in the EU and worldwide”), Who’s Who Legal (second most highly regarded individual worldwide; “one of the most active lawyers in Brussels”), Legal 500 (leading individual; “excellent trade policy lawyers;” “formidable reputation;’’ “always seem available, whichever part of the world, and at whatever time I call them”) and the Rushford report

  • Trade counsel of the World Federation of Sporting Goods Industry (WFSGI), assisting the association and its members with the resolution of trade conflicts worldwide

  • Represents MOFCOM and Suntech in anti-dumping and countervailing duty investigations concerning Solar panels and key components from China

  • Represented largest Chinese exporter and Fortune 500 company Huawei in Wireless WAN modems’ anti-dumping, countervailing duty and safeguards’ investigations

  • Represents MOFCOM in CVD investigation concerning Organic coated steel from China

  • Represented importers’ coalition EUSMET in Silicon

  • Represented Federation of European Sporting Goods Industry (FESI) in Footwear and co-counsel of European Footwear Alliance

  • Represents Footwear coalition of 26 leading footwear brands in court litigation to obtain EU-wide repayment of anti-dumping duties paid on imports of Chinese and Vietnamese footwear

  • Member of delegation in various WTO dispute settlement proceedings, most recently as counsel to MOFCOM in EU-Footwear



  • SJD, University of Michigan, 1986

  • LL.M., University of Michigan, 1984

  • JD, University of Utrecht, 1983

Bar admissions

  • Member of the Brussels bar


  • English
  •  Dutch
  •  German
  •  French

Author of nine books and numerous articles, including:


      • EU Anti-Dumping Law and Practice (2d ed. 2010, Sweet & Maxwell)

      • The WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement (2007, Oxford University Press)

      • Customs and Trade Laws as Tools of Protection: Selected Essays (2005 Cameron May; with Folkert Graafsma)

      • WTO Dispute Settlement: Anti-Dumping, Countervailing Duties and Safeguards (2002 Cameron May; with Folkert Graafsma)

      • Customs and Trade Laws of the European Community (1999 Kluwer Law International; with Stefano Inama)

      • EC Anti-Dumping Law and Practice (1997 Sweet & Maxwell; with Paul Waer)

      • Rules of Origin in International Trade: A Comparative Study (1994 The University of Michigan Press, Simon & Schuster; eds. Edwin Vermulst, Paul Waer, Jacques Bourgeois)

      • Anti-Dumping Law and Practice: A Comparative Study (1990 The University of Michigan Press, Simon & Schuster; eds. Professor John Jackson, Edwin Vermulst)

      • Anti-Dumping Law and Practice in the United States and the European Communities (1987 Elseviers Science Publishers)



      • Modernization of the EU’s Trade Defence Instruments: Much Ado about Nothing”, paper prepared for the INTA Committee of the European Parliament (2013)

      • The European Union: An Imperfect and Time-Consuming System”, in Domestic Judicial Review of Trade Remedies, 173-196 (Cambridge University Press 2013; ed. Muslum Yilmaz) (with Juhi Sud)

      • United States – Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products from China: Passing the Buck on Pass-Through”, 12:1 World Trade Review (2013) (With Tom Prusa)

      • Concurrent Trade Defense Investigations in the EU: The EU’s New Anti-Subsidy Practice against China, and the Future of Both”, 11:3 World Trade Review, 527-553 (2012) (with Brian Gatta)

      • Judicial Review of Trade Remedy Determinations in Ten User Countries”, 7:5 Global Trade and Customs Journal, 195-199 (2012) (with Gary Horlick)

      • Judicial Review of Anti-Dumping Determinations in the EU”, 7:5 Global Trade and Customs Journal, 240-247 (2012) (with Davide Rovetta)

      • Anti-Dumping”, Max Planck Encyclopedia Public International Law, 436-445 (2012)

      • Disciplining the Use of TDI Against China Through WTO Dispute Settlement,” 7:4 Global Trade and Customs Journal, 143-158 (2012) (with Brian Gatta)

      • A One-Two Punch on Zeroing: U.S. – Zeroing (EC) and U.S. – Zeroing (Japan), 8:1 World Trade Review, 187-241 (2009; with Tom Prusa)

      • Zeroing under the WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement: Where Do We Stand?, 2:6 Global Trade and Customs Journal, 231-242 (2007) (with Dan Ikenson)

      • The Agreement on Rules of Origin, in The World Trade Organization: Legal, Economic and Political Analysis I, 601-678 (Springer New York 2005; eds. Patrick Macrory, Arthur Appleton, Michael Plummer) (with Hiroshi Imagawa)

      • The Politicisation of EC Anti-Dumping Policy: Member States, Their Votes and the European Commission, 28:5 The World Economy, 701-717 (2005; with Simon Evenett)


10 Major Problems With the Anti-Dumping Instrument

Disclosure of Confidential Information in Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Proceedings Under U.S. Law

EC Customs Classification Rules Sould Ice-cream Melt

EC Dumping and Injury Margin Claculation Methods

Injury in Anti-Dumping Proceedings

Recent EC Safeguards Policy Kill Them All and Let God Short Them Out

Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments

The Anti-Absorption Provision in EC Anti-Dumping Law

Zeroing in on zeroing

Zeroing Under the WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement


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